Teacher Performance Expectations (TPEs)

TPEs Overview

A. Making Subject Matter Comprehensible to Students

B. Assessing Student Learning

C. Engaging and Supporting Students in Learning

D. Planning Instruction and Designing Learning Experiences for Students

E. Creating and Maintaining Effective Environments for Student Learning

F. Developing as a Professional Educator

TPEs Full Text

A. Making Subject Matter Comprehensible

TPE 1: Specific Pedagogical Skills for Subject Matter Instruction

Background Information: TPE 1. TPE 1 is divided into two categories intended to take into account the differentiated teaching assignments of multiple subject and single subject teachers. Multiple subject credential holders work in self-contained classrooms and are responsible for instruction in several subject areas; single subject teachers work in departmentalized settings and have more specialized assignments. These categories are Subject-Specific Pedagogical Skills for Multiple Subject Teaching Assignments (1-A), and Subject-Specific Pedagogical Skills for Single Subject Teaching Assignments (1-B).

TPE 1A:Subject-Specific Pedagogical Skills for Multiple Subject Teaching Assignments

Teaching Reading-Language Arts in a Multiple Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in English-Language Arts (K8). They understand how to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in word analysis, fluency, and systematic vocabulary development; reading comprehension; literary response and analysis; writing strategies and applications; written and oral English Language conventions; and listening and speaking strategies and applications. They know how to strategically plan and schedule instruction to ensure that students meet or exceed the standards. Candidates create a classroom environment where students learn to read and write, comprehend and compose, appreciate and analyze, and perform and enjoy the language arts. They understand how to make language (e.g., vocabulary, forms, uses) comprehensible to students and the need for students to master foundational skills as a gateway to using all forms of language as tools for thinking, learning, and communicating. They understand how to use instructional materials that include a range of textual, functional and recreational texts and how to teach high quality literature and expository text. They understand that the advanced skills of comprehending narrative and informational texts and literary response and analysis, and the creation of eloquent prose, all depend on a foundation of solid vocabulary, decoding, and word-recognition skills.

Candidates teach students how to use visual structures such as graphic organizers or outlines to comprehend or produce text, how to comprehend or produce narrative, expository, persuasive and descriptive texts, how to comprehend or produce the complexity of writing forms, purposes, and organizational patterns, and how to have a command of written and oral English-language conventions. They know how to determine the skill level of students through the use of meaningful indicators of reading and language arts proficiency prior to instruction, how to determine whether students are making adequate progress on skills and concepts taught directly, and how to determine the effectiveness of instruction and students’ proficiency after instruction.

Teaching Mathematics in a Multiple Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in mathematics (K-8). They enable students to understand basic mathematical computations, concepts, and symbols, to use these tools and processes to solve common problems, and apply them to novel problems. They help students understand different mathematical topics and make connections among them. Candidates help students solve real-world problems using mathematical reasoning and concrete, verbal, symbolic, and graphic representations. They provide a secure environment for taking intellectual risks and approaching problems in multiple ways. Candidates model and encourage students to use multiple ways of approaching mathematical problems, and they encourage discussion of different solution strategies. They foster positive attitudes toward mathematics, and encourage student curiosity, flexibility, and persistence in solving mathematical problems.

Teaching Science in a Multiple Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in science (K-8). They balance the focus of instruction between science information, concepts, and investigations. Their explanations, demonstrations, and class activities serve to illustrate science concepts and principles, scientific investigation, and experimentation. Candidates emphasize the importance of accuracy, precision, and estimation.

Teaching History-Social Science in a Multiple Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in history-social science (K-8). They enable students to learn and use basic analytic thinking skills in history and social science while attaining the state-adopted academic content standards for students. They use timelines and maps to give students a sense of temporal and spatial scale. Candidates teach students how social science concepts and themes provide insights into historical periods and cultures. They help students understand events and periods from multiple perspectives by using simulations, case studies, cultural artifacts, works of art and literature, cooperative projects, and student research activities.

TPE 1B:Subject-Specific Pedagogical Skills for Single Subject Teaching Assignments

Teaching English-Language Arts in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in English-Language Arts (Grades 7-12). They understand how to deliver a comprehensive program of systematic instruction in word analysis, fluency, and systematic vocabulary development; reading comprehension; literary response and analysis; writing strategies and applications; written and oral English Language conventions; and listening and speaking strategies and applications. They know how to strategically plan and schedule instruction to ensure that students meet or exceed the standards. They understand how to make language (e.g., vocabulary, forms, uses) comprehensible to students and the need for students to master foundational skills as a gateway to using all forms of language as tools for thinking, learning and communicating. They understand how to teach the advanced skills of research-based discourse; incorporate technology into the language arts as a tool for conducting research or creating finished manuscripts and multimedia presentations; focus on analytical critique of text and of a variety of media; and provide a greater emphasis on the language arts as applied to work and careers. Candidates teach students how to comprehend and produce complex text, how to comprehend the complexity of writing forms, purposes, and organizational patterns, and how to have a command of written and oral English-language conventions. They know how to determine the skill level of students through the use of meaningful indicators of reading and language arts proficiency prior to instruction, how to determine whether students are making adequate progress on skills and concepts taught directly, and how to determine the effectiveness of instruction and students’ proficiency after instruction.

Teaching Mathematics in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential in Mathematics demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in mathematics (Grades 7-12). They enable students to understand basic mathematical computations, concepts, and symbols, to use them to solve common problems, and to apply them to novel problems. They help students understand different mathematical topics and make connections among them. Candidates help students solve real-world problems using mathematical reasoning and concrete, verbal, symbolic, and graphic representations. They provide a secure environment for taking intellectual risks and approaching problems in multiple ways. Candidates model and encourage students to use multiple ways of approaching mathematical problems, and they encourage discussion of different solution strategies. They foster positive attitudes toward mathematics, and encourage student curiosity, flexibility, and persistence in solving mathematical problems.

Additionally, Single Subject Candidates help students in Grades 7-12 to understand mathematics as a logical system that includes definitions, axioms, and theorems, and to understand and use mathematical notation and advanced symbols. They assign and assess work through progress-monitoring and summative assessments that include illustrations of student thinking such as open-ended questions, investigations, and projects.

Teaching Science in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential in Science demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in science (Grades 7-12). They balance the focus of instruction between science information, concepts, and principles. Their explanations, demonstrations, and class activities serve to illustrate science concepts, and principles, scientific investigation, and experimentation. Candidates emphasize the importance of accuracy, precision, and estimation. Candidates encourage students to pursue science interests, especially students from groups underrepresented in science careers. When live animals are present in the classroom, candidates teach students to provide ethical care. They demonstrate sensitivity to students’ cultural and ethnic backgrounds in designing science instruction.

Additionally, Single Subject Candidates guide, monitor and encourage students during investigations and experiments. They demonstrate and encourage use of multiple ways to measure and record scientific data, including the use of mathematical symbols. Single Subject Candidates structure and sequence science instruction to enhance students’ academic knowledge to meet or exceed the state-adopted academic content standards for students. They establish and monitor procedures for the care, safe use, and storage of equipment and materials, and for the disposal of potentially hazardous materials.

Teaching History-Social Science in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential in History-Social Science demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in history-social science (Grades 7-12). They enable students to learn and use analytic thinking skills in history and social science while attaining the state-adopted academic content standards for students. They use timelines and maps to reinforce students’ sense of temporal and spatial scale. Candidates teach students how social science concepts and themes provide insights into historical periods and cultures. They help students understand events and periods from multiple perspectives by using simulations, case studies, cultural artifacts, works of art and literature, cooperative projects, and student research activities.

Additionally, History-Social Science Single Subject Candidates connect essential facts and information to broad themes, concepts and principles, and they relate history-social science content to current or future issues. They teach students how cultural perspectives inform and influence understandings of history. They select and use age-appropriate primary and secondary documents and artifacts to help students understand a historical period, event, region or culture. Candidates ask questions and structure academic instruction to help students recognize prejudices and stereotypes. They create classroom environments that support the discussion of sensitive issues (e.g., social, cultural, religious, race, and gender issues), and encourage students to reflect on and share their insights and values. They design activities to counter illustrate multiple viewpoints on issues. Candidates monitor the progress of students as they work to understand, debate, and critically analyze social science issues, data, and research conclusions from multiple perspectives.

Teaching Art in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state adopted academic content standards for students in Art (Grades 7-12). They are able to strategically plan, implement, and evaluate instruction that assures that students meet or exceed the visual arts content standards. They balance instruction between the gathering of information, the development
of skills and techniques, and the expression of ideas in both written and visual forms. Candidates for a Single Subject Credential in Art model and encourage student creativity, flexibility, and persistence in solving artistic problems. They provide secure environments that allow students to take risks and approach aesthetic problems in multiple ways. Their explanations, demonstrations, and planned activities serve to involve students in learning experiences that help them process and respond to sensory information through the language and skills unique to the visual arts.

Additionally, Art Single Subject candidates help students discover ways to translate thoughts, perceptions, and ideas into original works of art using a variety of media and techniques. They establish and monitor procedures for the safe care, use, and storage of art equipment and materials. Candidates understand and are able to teach students about the historical contributions and cultural dimensions of art, providing insights into the role and development of the visual arts in past and present cultures throughout the world. They emphasize the contributions of art to culture, society, and the economy, especially in California. Teacher candidates guide students as they make informed critical judgments about the quality and success of artworks, analyzing the artist’s intent, purpose, and technical proficiency. Where appropriate, they connect and apply what is learned in the visual
arts to other subject areas. Candidates understand how to relate the visual arts to life skills and lifelong learning; they provide information about opportunities for careers in art.

Teaching Business in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential in Business demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted career technical education (CCTE) model curriculum standards in business (Grades 7-12) for student mastery. They prepare students to carry out business management functions with an understanding of organizational theory and development, leadership, and motivational concepts.
Candidates enable students to solve real-world business problems that include methods of decision making applied to legal and ethical principles, the application of mathematical operations leading to quantitative and qualitative analysis, and the understanding and application of accounting concepts, principles, procedures, and financial analysis. They prepare students to apply key marketing principles and concepts including but not limited to, customer service, selling, promotion, and distribution in both domestic and international markets. Candidates teach students to apply principles and procedures related to applications, networking systems, and basic concepts of programming and systems development and then ethical use of information technology in business situations.

Candidates instruct students in the basic economic principles as they apply to microeconomic and macroeconomic theories and principles in domestic and international economies. Candidates assist students in a variety of procedures to address individual career development and provide ample opportunities for students to develop their own employment and entrepreneurial skills. Candidates
assist students to apply the knowledge of technology, reading, writing, mathematics, speaking, and active listening skills in a variety of business situations. They utilize a variety of authentic, performance based assessment strategies to assess students’ skills and abilities.

Teaching Health Science in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state adopted academic content standards for students in Health Science (Grades 7-12). Candidates demonstrate a fundamental understanding of professional, legal, scientific, behavioral and philosophical principles of health education and the role of the school health educator within a Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP). They demonstrate problem-solving and critical thinking skills that develop confidence in the decision making process and promote healthy behaviors. Candidates recognize differences in individual growth and development and variation in culture and
family life. They assess individual and community needs for health education by interpreting health related data about social and cultural environments. They differentiate between health education practices that are grounded in scientific research and those that are not research-based. They identify opportunities for collaboration among health educators in all settings, including school and community health professions. Candidates use their analytical skills to identify behaviors that enhance and/or compromise personal health and well-being. They recognize the short-term and long-term effects of the lifestyle choices and habits of individuals and integrate higher-level thinking skills within the context of various health topics. They apply a variety of risk assessment skills and prevention strategies to health- related issues. Candidates demonstrate effective communication and advocacy skills as they relate to personal, family, and community health and health education needs in order to effectively motivate California’s diverse youth to adopt a healthy lifestyle. They understand the role of communication and communication skills in interpersonal relationships and identify strategies that encourage appropriate expression.

Teaching Home Economics in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state adopted career and technology standards for students in home economics (Grades 7-12). They understand how to create home economics career pathways by planning sequences of courses for two complementary, fiscally responsible, inclusive instructional programs, Consumer and Family Studies (CSF) and Home Economics Related Occupations (HERO). They know how to employ FHA-HERO as a teaching strategy for developing interpersonal, leadership, citizenship, and career skills. They teach students the essential knowledge and skills for managing their personal, family, and work responsibilities through engaging learning activities, appropriately selected for the eight content areas of CFS. In the HERO program, candidates work closely with industry partners and plan authentic learning experiences to prepare students for entry-level careers or advanced training and education. They plan and supervise student work including group assignments, laboratory work, and on-the job-training. They help students understand underlying theories and complex concepts (e.g., developmental theories in child development and organic chemistry in food science) and solve real-life problems using appropriate problem-solving, creative thinking and critical thinking skills. They plan assessments of student learning, provide frequent feedback, assist students in the achievement of the standards, and use evidence of student learning to improve their program.

Teaching Industrial and Technology Education in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential in Industrial and Technology Education (ITE) demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in Technology Education, traditional Industrial Arts, and all forms of Computer Education (Grades 7-12). They provide students with an understanding of the nature of technology and of its core technological concepts. They prepare students to understand and use the design process as a problem-solving model. They design and provide to students, problems, exercises, and projects that require the application of core academic knowledge, including (but not limited to) the fields of science, mathematics, economics, social science, and data analysis. Candidates teach students how to work and behave in a safe manner, and they model safety in the laboratory. They will prepare students to use all types of tools safely, correctly, and effectively. Additionally, Industrial and Technology Education Single Subject candidates prepare students to understand the connections and interactions between technology and all aspects of society. The students will gain a heightened awareness of cultural, social, economic, and environmental concerns related to and impacted by technology. Candidates will provide connections between industry and students to facilitate real-world understandings of industry, provide external experiences, establish internships, and reinforce for students the critical role of lifelong learning as well as provide a foundation for making ITE-related career choices.

Teaching Languages Other Than English in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential in Languages Other Than English demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for world languages. First, and most important, they demonstrate a high proficiency in the target language that allows them to conduct their classes in the target language. In addition, candidates demonstrate the ability to teach in a proficiency-oriented program with a commitment to teaching and learning using the four language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, thus enabling their students to demonstrate communicative ability in the target language from level 1 to advanced. Candidates demonstrate knowledge of the nature of language, basic linguistics and a thorough understanding of the structural rules and practical use of the target language. Candidates also demonstrate an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the cultures and societies in which the target language is spoken, with validation and enhancement of the language and culture of heritage and native speakers. They demonstrate that they have the requisite knowledge necessary to plan and deliver challenging lessons, to assess their students using a variety of assessment tools by using current methodology in second-language acquisition, with attention to critical thinking and emphasis on evidence of student learning to inform their best practices in teaching. Candidates also demonstrate that they have knowledge of using technology to support and enhance their instruction.

Teaching Music in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for the Single Subject Teaching Credential demonstrate the ability to teach the state adopted academic content standards for students in Music (Grades 7-12). They model highly developed aural musicianship and aural analysis skills, teach music theory and analysis (including transcription of musical excerpts; error detection; analysis of form, style, and compositional devices; harmonic progressions and cadences), and can teach students to read and notate music, understand the techniques of orchestration and have facility in transposition. Candidates model expressive and skillful performance on a primary instrument or voice and are proficient in keyboard skills. They use effective conducting techniques and teach students to sight sing, sight read, improvise, compose and
arrange music. Candidates use wide knowledge of Western and non-Western works in their instruction. They help students understand the roles of musicians, composers, and general instruments in diverse cultures and historical periods, and identify contributions of diverse cultural, ethnic and gender groups and well-known musicians in the development of musical genres.

Candidates instruct students in voice, keyboard, woodwinds, brass, strings, guitar and percussion. They use a variety of instrumental, choral and ensemble rehearsal techniques and employ an understanding of developmental stages of learning in relation to music instruction.

Candidates enable students to understand aesthetic valuing in music and teach them to respond to, analyze and critique performances and works of music, including their own. They teach the connections and relationships between music and the other arts as well as between music and other academic disciplines. They inform students of career and lifelong learning opportunities available in
the field of music, media and entertainment industries. Candidates use various learning approaches and can instruct students in using movement to demonstrate rhythm and expressive nuances of music. They instruct using a broad range of repertoire and literature and evaluate those materials for specific educational purposes. They use various strategies for sequencing, planning and assessing music learning in general music and performance classes including portfolio, video recording, audio recording, adjudication forms and rubrics.

Teaching Physical Education in a Single Subject Assignment
Candidates for the Single Subject Teaching Credential in Physical Education demonstrate the ability to teach the state-adopted academic content standards for students in physical education (Grades K-12). They enable students to develop the skills and knowledge they need to become active for life. Candidates balance the focus of instruction between information, concepts, and skill development to provide students with the foundation for developing active and healthy lifestyles. Candidates design a curriculum accessible to all students that includes a variety of fundamental movement, individual/dual/team sport, dance, aquatics, outdoor/adventure activities, combative, and fitness activities and that meets the developmental needs of all students, including individuals with disabilities, lower-skilled individuals, and higher performers. Candidates also demonstrate sensitivity to students’ cultural and ethnic backgrounds and include activities of global interest in the curriculum. Candidates understand how to motivate students to embrace a healthy lifestyle, to think critically and analytically in game and sports environments, and to reflect on and solve problems to minimize barriers to physical activity participation throughout life. In addition, candidates create class environments that ensure safe and productive participation in physical activity by developing procedures for care and use of equipment, carefully organizing and monitoring activities, and monitoring facilities.

B. Assessing Student Learning

TPE 2:Monitoring Student Learning During Instruction

Candidates for a Teaching Credential use progress monitoring at key points during instruction to determine whether students are progressing adequately toward achieving the state-adopted academic content standards for students. They pace instruction and re teach content based on evidence gathered using assessment strategies such as questioning students and examining student work and products. Candidates anticipate, check for, and address common student misconceptions and misunderstandings.

TPE 3:Interpretation and Use of Assessments

Candidates for a Teaching Credential understand and use a variety of informal and formal, as well as formative and summative assessments, to determine students’ progress and plan instruction. They know about and can appropriately implement the state-adopted student assessment program. Candidates understand the purposes and uses of different types of diagnostic instruments, including entry level, progress-monitoring and summative assessments. They use multiple measures, including information from families, to assess student knowledge, skills, and behaviors. They know when and how to use specialized assessments based on students’ needs. Candidates know about and can appropriately use informal classroom assessments and analyze student work. They teach students how to use self-assessment strategies. Candidates provide guidance and time for students to practice these strategies.

Candidates understand how to familiarize students with the format of standardized tests. They know how to appropriately administer standardized tests, including when to make accommodations for students with special needs. They know how to accurately interpret assessment results of individuals and groups in order to develop and modify instruction. Candidates interpret assessment data to identify the level of proficiency of English language learners in English as well as in the students’ primary language. They give students specific, timely feedback on their learning, and maintain accurate records summarizing student achievement. They are able to explain, to students and to their families, student academic and behavioral strengths, areas for academic growth, promotion and retention policies, and how a grade or progress report is derived. Candidates can clearly explain to families how to help students achieve the curriculum.

C. Engaging and Supporting Students in Learning

TPE 4:Making Content Accessible

Candidates for Teaching Credentials incorporate specific strategies, teaching/instructional activities, procedures and experiences that address state-adopted academic content standards for students in order to provide a balanced and comprehensive curriculum. They use instructional materials to reinforce state-adopted academic content standards for students and they prioritize and sequence essential skills and strategies in a logical, coherent manner relative to students’ current level of achievement. They vary instructional strategies according to purpose and lesson content. To meet student academic learning needs, candidates explain content clearly and reinforce content in multiple ways, such as the use of written and oral presentation, manipulatives, physical models, visual and performing arts, diagrams, non-verbal communication, and computer technology. They provide opportunities and adequate time for students to practice and apply what they have learned. They distinguish between conversational and academic language, and develop student skills in using and understanding academic language. They teach students strategies to read and comprehend a variety of texts and a variety of information sources, in the subject(s) taught. They model active listening in the classroom. Candidates encourage student creativity and imagination. They motivate students and encourage student effort. When students do not understand content, they take additional steps to foster access and comprehension for all learners. Candidates balance instruction by adjusting lesson designs relative to students’ current level of achievement.

TPE 5:Student Engagement

Candidates for Teaching Credentials clearly communicate instructional objectives to students. They ensure the active and equitable participation of all students. They ensure that students understand what they are to do during instruction and monitor student progress toward academic goals. If students are struggling and off-task, candidates examine why and use strategies to re-engage them. Candidates encourage students to share and examine points of view during lessons. They use community resources, student experiences, and applied learning activities to make instruction relevant. They extend the intellectual quality of student thinking by asking stimulating questions and challenging student ideas. Candidates teach students to respond to and frame meaningful questions.

TPE 6:Developmentally Appropriate Teaching Practices

Background information for TPE 6: TPE’s describe knowledge, skills, and abilities for all credential candidates, and they underscore the importance of generically-effective strategies for teaching a broad range of students. The purpose of TPE 6 is to establish additional expectations that are of greatest importance in teaching students at distinct stages of child and adolescent development. It is not the intent of TPE 6 to describe practices that are appropriate or effective only at one developmental level. This TPE describes professional practices that are most commonly used and needed for students in each major phase of schooling, grades K-3, 4-8, and 9-12.*

* TPE 6 does not represent a comprehensive strategy for teaching students at any particular stage; the elements of TPE 6 are intended merely to supplement and not replace the broader range of pedagogical skills and abilities described in the TPE’s

TPE 6A:Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Grades K-3

During teaching assignments in Grades K-3, candidates for a Multiple Subject Teaching Credential understand how to create a structured day with opportunities for movement. They design academic activities that suit the attention span of young learners. Their instructional activities connect with the children’s immediate world; draw on key content from more than one subject area; and include hands-on experiences and manipulatives that help students learn. Candidates teach and model norms of social interactions (e.g., consideration, cooperation, responsibility, empathy). They understand that some children hold naive understandings of the world around them. Candidates provide educational experiences that help students develop more realistic expectations and understandings of their environment. They know how to make special plans for students who require extra help in exercising self-control among their peers or who have exceptional needs or abilities.

TPE 6B:Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Grades 4-8

During teaching assignments in Grades 4-8, candidates for a teaching credential build on students’ command of basic skills and understandings while providing intensive support for students who lack basic skills as defined in state-adopted academic content standards for students. They teach from grade-level texts. Candidates design learning activities to extend students’ concrete thinking and foster abstract reasoning and problem-solving skills. They help students develop learning strategies to cope with increasingly challenging academic curriculum. They assist students, as needed, in developing and practicing strategies for managing time and completing assignments. Candidates develop students’ skills for working in groups to maximize learning. They build on peer relationships and support students in trying new roles and responsibilities in the classroom. They support students’ taking of intellectual risks such as sharing ideas that may include errors. Candidates distinguish between misbehavior and over-enthusiasm, and they respond appropriately to students who are testing limits and students who alternatively assume and reject responsibility.

TPE 6C: Developmentally Appropriate Practices in Grades 9-12

During teaching assignments in Grades 9-12, candidates for a Single Subject Teaching Credential establish intellectually challenging academic expectations and provide opportunities for students to develop advanced thinking and problem-solving skills. They frequently communicate course goals, requirements, and grading criteria to students and families. They help students to understand connections between the curriculum and life beyond high school, and they communicate the consequences of academic choices in terms of future career, school and life options. Candidates support students in assuming increasing responsibility for learning, and encourage behaviors important for work such as being on time and completing assignments. They understand adolescence as a period of intense social peer pressure to conform, and they support signs of students’ individuality while being sensitive to what being “different” means for high school students.

TPE 7:Teaching English Learners

Candidates for a Teaching Credential know and can apply pedagogical theories, principles, and instructional practices for comprehensive instruction of English learners. They know and can apply theories, principles, and instructional practices for English Language Development leading to comprehensive literacy in English. They are familiar with the philosophy, design, goals, and characteristics of programs for English language development, including structured English immersion. They implement an instructional program that facilitates English language development, including reading, writing, listening and speaking skills, that logically progresses to the grade level reading/language arts program for English speakers. They draw upon information about students’ backgrounds and prior learning, including students’ assessed levels of literacy in English and their first languages, as well as their proficiency in English, to provide instruction differentiated to students’ language abilities. They understand how and when to collaborate with specialists and para-educators to support English language development. Based on appropriate assessment information, candidates select instructional materials and strategies, including activities in the area of visual and performing arts, to develop students’ abilities to comprehend and produce English. They use English that extends students’ current level of development yet is still comprehensible. They know how to analyze student errors in oral and written language in order to understand how to plan differentiated instruction.

Candidates for a Teaching Credential know and apply pedagogical theories, principles and practices for the development of academic language, comprehension, and knowledge in the subjects of the core curriculum. They use systematic instructional strategies, including contextualizing key concepts, to make grade-appropriate or advanced curriculum content comprehensible to English learners. They allow students to express meaning in a variety of ways, including in their first language, and, if available, manage first language support such as para-educators, peers, and books.2 They use questioning strategies that model or represent familiar English grammatical constructions. They make learning strategies explicit.
Candidates understand how cognitive, pedagogical, and individual factors affect students’ language acquisition. They take these factors into account in planning lessons for English language development and for academic content.
2 Teachers are not expected to speak the students’ primary language, unless they hold an appropriate credential and teach in a bilingual classroom. The expectation is that they understand how to use available resources in the primary language, including students’ primary language skills, to support their learning of English and curriculum content.

D. Planning Instruction and Designing Learning Experiences for Students

TPE 8:Learning about Students

Candidates for a Teaching Credential draw upon an understanding of patterns of child and adolescent development to understand their students. Using formal and informal methods, they assess students’ prior mastery of academic language abilities, content knowledge, and skills, and maximize learning opportunities for all students. Through interpersonal interactions, they learn about students’ abilities, ideas, interests and aspirations. They encourage parents to become involved and support their efforts to improve student learning. They understand how multiple factors, including gender and health, can influence students’ behavior, and understand the connections between students’ health and their ability to learn. Based on assessment data, classroom observation, reflection and consultation, they identify students needing specialized instruction, including students whose physical disabilities, learning disabilities, or health status require instructional adaptations, and students who are gifted.

TPE 9:Instructional Planning

Candidates for a Teaching Credential plan instruction that is comprehensive in relation to the subject matter to be taught and in accordance with state-adopted academic content standards for students. They establish clear long-term and short-term goals for student learning, based on state and local standards for student achievement as well as on students’ current levels of achievement. They use explicit teaching methods such as direct instruction and inquiry to help students meet or exceed grade level expectations. They plan how to explain content clearly and make abstract concepts concrete and meaningful. They understand the purposes, strengths and limitations of a variety of instructional strategies, including examining student work, and they improve their successive uses of the strategies based on experience and reflection. They sequence instruction so the content to be taught connects to preceding and subsequent content. In planning lessons, they select or adapt instructional strategies, grouping strategies, and instructional material to meet student learning goals and needs. Candidates connect the content to be learned with students’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds, experiences, interests, and developmental learning needs to ensure that instruction is comprehensible and meaningful. To accommodate varied student needs, they plan differentiated instruction. When support personnel, such as aides and volunteers are available, they plan how to use them to help students reach instructional goals.

E. Creating and Maintaining Effective Environments for Student Learning

TPE 10: Instructional Time

Candidates for a Teaching Credential allocate instructional time to maximize student achievement in relation to state-adopted academic content standards for students, instructional goals and scheduled academic tasks. They establish procedures for routine tasks and manage transitions to maximize instructional time. Based on reflection and consultation, they adjust the use of instructional time to optimize the learning opportunities and outcomes for all students.

TPE 11:Social Environment

Candidates for a Teaching Credential develop and maintain clear expectations for academic and social behavior. The candidates promote student effort and engagement and create a positive climate for learning. They know how to write and implement a student discipline plan. They know how to establish rapport with all students and their families for supporting academic and personal success through caring, respect, and fairness. Candidates respond appropriately to sensitive issues and classroom discussions. They help students learn to work responsibly with others and independently. Based on observations of students and consultation with other teachers, the candidate recognizes how well the social environment maximizes academic achievement for all students and makes necessary changes.

F. Developing as a Professional Educator

TPE 12:Professional, Legal, and Ethical Obligations

Candidates for a Teaching Credential take responsibility for student academic learning outcomes. They are aware of their own personal values and biases and recognize ways in which these values and biases affect the teaching and learning of students. They resist racism and acts of intolerance. Candidates appropriately manage their professional time spent in teaching responsibilities to ensure that academic goals are met. They understand important elements of California and federal laws and procedures pertaining to the education of English learners, gifted students, and individuals with disabilities, including implications for their placement in classrooms. Candidates can identify suspected cases of child abuse, neglect, or sexual harassment. They maintain a non-hostile classroom environment. They carry out laws and district guidelines for reporting such cases. They understand and implement school and district policies and state and federal law in responding to inappropriate or violent student behavior.

Candidates for a Teaching Credential understand and honor legal and professional obligations to protect the privacy, health, and safety of students, families, and other school professionals. They are aware of and act in accordance with ethical considerations and they model ethical behaviors for students. Candidates understand and honor all laws relating to professional misconduct and moral fitness.

TPE 13:Professional Growth

Candidates for a Teaching Credential evaluate their own teaching practices and subject matter knowledge in light of information about the state-adopted academic content standards for students and student learning. They improve their teaching practices by soliciting feedback and engaging in cycles of planning, teaching, reflecting, discerning problems, and applying new strategies. Candidates use reflection and feedback to formulate and prioritize goals for increasing their subject matter knowledge and teaching effectiveness.

 

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